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Installing NetTen

Pre-installation tasks

Before you install NetTen, make sure that you have enough disk space for the NetTen package, that you know your DNS situation, and that your Mac is properly networked.


In order to create a suitable environment for NetTen, you must determine what DNS server you will use with NetTen since NetTen requires a properly configured DNS server to run (whether it is its own or any other server). NetTen will only run if it can either get proper network settings from your Mac OS controls or from its preferences. You should have your TCP/IP settings set "manually" when setting up NetTen, because this will help NetTen get its settings automatically from Mac OS. Do not use a DHCP server for your network information because NetTen can't gather DHCP provided information from your TCP/IP settings.

Check Memory and Disk Space

NetTen consumes about 15 Mbytes of memory if Virtual Memory is turned off. This requirement is greatly reduced if Virtual Memory is turned on. We recommend system configurations with at least 24 Mbytes of physical memory and virtual memory enabled.


NetTen requires about 50 Megabytes of disk space. Additional space may be required depending on the volume of e-mail traffic and how long e-mail remains queued on the NetTen system. NetTen stores different classes of mail in different places under Mac OS. For efficiency, NetTen uses a database in Tenon's fast file system to store queued outgoing e-mail. This database is a fixed size and must be periodically monitored (see "Checking the Fast Storage Size" in section 5.1.). To adjust its size (see "Changing the Fast Storage Size" in section 5.2). NetTen stores mail delivered to local e-mail addresses in the Macintosh file system under the "mail" directory. This directory is not subject to periodic size constraints other than those of the Mac OS file system and is available for maintenance and monitoring using standard Mac OS point-and-click file maintenance operations.

Check for existing Name Servers

Typically NetTen is used to provide Domain Name Service and Mail service, but NetTen can be used exclusively for Domain Name Server or Mail Service. Mail Service requires DNS, so if NetTen is not providing DNS, another server must be employed for that purpose.


If you do not have an existing Domain Name Server, or you are using NetTen to setup a new domain, configure NetTen to provide DNS.


NetTen can be used as a Domain Name Server even if your network already has a Domain Name Server or if your Internet Service Provider is already handling Domain Name Service for you. NetTen can be used for any combination of these options:


#1. Use NetTen as a redundant Name Server for your domain. You can choose which hosts are to use NetTen for domain name resolution. Additional hostnames and addresses can be added to the NetTen DNS database as necessary.


#2. Create a new domain. For testing (or real) purposes, NetTen can be configured to provide Name Service for a new domain. For more information, see Chapter 9. If this Domain is to become "live", it must be registered with the InterNIC.


#3. Setup NetTen as a Secondary Server. NetTen fully supports secondary name service. It can be used to off-load existing Name Servers and to increase availability of your Domain Names. For more information, see "Configuring DNS" in Chapter 9.


#4. Make NetTen the Primary Name Server for your domain. NetTen can easily import DNS databases from other Name Servers and become a Primary Server for these imported domains. For more information, see Chapter 9.


NetTen's Domain Name Server is preconfigured with addresses for the Internet Root Name Servers. NetTen independently provides fully recursive Domain Name Resolution (with caching), it does not require any configuring on other Domain Name Servers on your network or at your Internet Service Provider. You can immediately begin using NetTen as your Domain Name Resolver from any host on your network.


During initialization, NetTen creates a minimal database for the Domain specified in its preferences. The database includes the hostname and IP Address of the Macintosh NetTen is running on, an Alias "NetTen" to this same machine, and Mail Exchanger records required by Post.Office.


DNS records for other hosts in your domain are not yet known to the NetTen Domain Name Server. You can either enter them one at a time using a web browser (see "Configuring the DNS" in Chapter 9), or import them all at once from an existing Domain Name Server.


NetTen's Mail Server, Post.Office, uses DNS to lookup the IP Address and Hostname of each client that attempts to connect to it. If Post.Office cannot resolve the client's name, it refuses that client's request to POP mail or to make account changes. Therefore, you must make sure that the Name Server that NetTen is using (either its own or some other Name Server) is properly configured with the names and addresses for each host that is to use Post.Office.


Check your Networking

Before launching NetTen for the first time, make sure your Macintosh is networking correctly.


If you are using NetTen as a Domain Name Server, you will have to change your "Domain Name Server Information" settings in the "Name Server addr" settings in the TCP/IP Control Panel. Enter your Domain Name and copy the IP Address of the NetTen system into the "Domain Name Server IP Address" field. This must be done on each system that is to access NetTen and on the NetTen system itself.


If you are not using NetTen as a Domain Name Server, you may leave your TCP/IP domain name resolver settings pointing at your existing Domain Name Server. This is, of course, providing that these settings worked before NetTen was running. NetTen's existence won't fix TCP/IP settings that are wrong.


Install the NetTen application

To install NetTen, double click on the "NetTen installer" to launch the installer program.


Installer Icon


Installer Instructions

Select a folder to install into.


Installer Destination Folder


The installer program display a progress window depicting the progress of the installation. Wait a few moments for the installation to complete.


Installer Progress


When the installer program completes, it displays a status window with a message describing the success of the installation. Select "Quit".


Installation Completed

Launching NetTen

Find the NetTen folder and double click on NetTen

NetTen v1.4 folder


NetTen requires a minimum set of preferences before it will launch NetTen. If NetTen can glean its necessary information from other existing Control Panels, NetTen proceeds to start-up. Otherwise, NetTen displays its preferences window and it will not continue the start-up process until the minimal set of preferences is satisfied (see section 3.4 for more on preferences).


Check NetTen Preferences

Select Preferences under the File Menu. Verify the settings for your system. For more information, see "Preferences" in section 3.4. Pay particular attention to the DNS IP Address. If this setting points to the NetTen system, NetTen must be configured to provide DNS Service. If an existing Name Server is being used, NetTen can be configured not to provide Domain Name Service. Once NetTen is started, changes to the preferences only become active after NetTen is quit and restarted.


The Start-up Status Window

If the minimum set of preferences are found, NetTen displays a start-up status window which reports on initialization with a progress bar and text. When NetTen's initialization completes, the start-up status window disappears and all of NetTen menu items are enabled


Start-up Status Window


If NetTen Admin is launched while NetTen is already running, the start-up status window is not shown and NetTen Admin immediately enables all of its menu items.


NetTen requires a minimum set of preferences before it will launch. By default, NetTen copies the Host Name and Time Zone settings from the Sharing Setup and Date and Time control panels. If OpenTransport has been installed, NetTen gets its default networking settings from the TCP/IP control panel. If the previously set values from these control panels satisfy the minimum requirements, NetTen continues it's launch sequence. Otherwise, NetTen displays a preferences window with as many of the default fields filled in as possible.


If the <option> key is held down while NetTen launches, NetTen displays the preference window providing for modifications to a previous configuration.


Cancelling the preferences window will not save any changes and will cause NetTen to abort start-up.


Preferences Window

Host Name

The Host Name is the name assigned to this machine. It is the name by which other machine on the network will refer to this host. This field is initialized from the Macintosh Flagship name setting.

Time Zone

The Time Zone is the corresponding time zone that this machine is in. Select the appropriate value from the list. If your time zone does not specifically appear in the list, use the GMT setting with the proper plus or minus value.

Domain Name


The Domain Name is the name assigned to your network. It is the name by which other machines on external networks will refer to this network, and it is the default network name used by machines on your network. If you are using NetTen exclusively within an intranet with its own domain name, or you already have a valid Internet domain name, enter the domain name here. If you wish to learn more about requesting and registering domain names, visit the InterNIC home page at http://www.internic.net .


DNS IP Address


The DNS IP Address is the IP Address, in dot notation, of the Domain Name Server on your network. If some machine other than the NetTen machine is to provide the Domain Name Service on you network, enter the IP Address of that machine. Otherwise, if the NetTen is to provide the Domain Name Service, enter the IP Address of this machine.


NetTen DNS specifics

Use your web browser to connect to NetTen' home page. If your browser is running on the NetTen system, click on the following localhost link:




If your Browser is running on another system (that has been configured to use NetTen as its Name Server), click on the following NetTen link:




If you are not using NetTen for Domain Name Service, you should add the Alias "NetTen" to your existing Domain Name Server's database. Make this alias point to the hostname for the system that NetTen is running on. The name "NetTen" is used in several places in the NetTen documentation to hot link to NetTen's Home Page so if your Browser can resolve this name you can immediately get from here to there. You and your users can simply remember the name "NetTen" to POP or use IMAP to received mail and customize accounts without remembering the name of the system NetTen is running on. This also mitigates the difficulty of moving NetTen to another system in the future, as all that needs to be changed is the "NetTen" Alias. Of course you can use an alias of your choice rather than "NetTen" (but this documentation depends on "NetTen", so you may choose to use two Aliases).


If neither of the above links connect you to the NetTen Home Page, substitute the name of your NetTen system and your domain name into the following URL and enter it directly into your browser:




If your Browser is running on another system, NetTen must be able to resolve (and reverse resolve) the hostname of that system. Follow the instructions in the next section to enter that hostname and IP address into the NetTen DNS database. If NetTen is not providing Domain Name Service and your hostname is not already in your networks Domain Name Server, contact your Network Administrator and have your hostname added as appropriate.


Enable Domain Name Server


The Enable Domain Name Service checkbox controls whether NetTen provides Domain Name Service. Running without Domain Name Service saves memory in installations that are only required to provide Post.Office. Note that Post.Office requires access to a properly configured Domain Name Server, and NetTen's Domain Name Service is automatically configured to satisfy Post.Office's DNS requirements. If Post.Office is to use a Domain Name Server other than the NetTen Domain Name Server, that other server may require additional configuration (DNS MX records) to accommodate Post.Office

Launch NetTen on Start-up


NetTen can be configured to start-up whenever the Macintosh is restarted. This is accomplished by the usual method of placing a Finder Alias of the NetTen application in the Start-up Folder in the active System Folder. This checkbox automatically adds or removes such an alias from the start-up folder.


Replace Open Transport


NetTen has three modes of networking operation. The first mode uses OpenTransport, the second mode uses a custom TCP/IP networking module, and the third is called "dual stack" in which both OpenTransport and Tenon stack are in use. The first mode is only available if OpenTransport is installed. In this case it is the preferred mode of operation and is the default setting.


Networking With OpenTransport

If OpenTransport is installed, the NetTen Admin preferences default to using OpenTransport (by not selecting Replace Open Transport). In this mode, the minimal set of preferences that must be set includes the Host Name, Domain Name, and DNS IP Address.


Custom Networking

If OpenTransport is not installed, the NetTen preferences default to built-in networking (by selecting Replace OpenTransport). In this case, this option may not be changed. The minimal set of preferences that must be set now includes the Host Name, Domain Name, DNS IP Address, and either of the AppleTalk or Ethernet IP Addresses. The custom module completely replaces MacTCP and provides a MacTCP compatibility interface. Other MacTCP programs must be explicitly launched after NetTen is running to utilize this compatibility interface. One can choose the custom TCP module by checking `Replace Open Transport" in the Preferences menu.


Dual Stack

Configuring for dual stack is the same as configuring for Tenon custom networking except that OpenTransport will be running on its own IP address. This allows applications to use OpenTransport on one IP address while Tenon applications use custom networking on a different IP address. Dual stack is used by configuring the TCP/IP control panel and Tenon application preferences with different networking settings.


Replacing Open Transport


Using Tenon's custom networking requires more than just configuration of the NetTen Preferences. You must also verify that the Tenon libraries in the "Tenon Libraries" folder of the NetTen folder are correctly placed.


Below is a table describing where the libraries need to be in order to use Dual Stack, Tenon Stack, or OpenTransport networking. In Dual Stack, OpenTransport is used by the Mac OS for its networking and Tenon stack is used by NetTen. Different IP addresses must be given to the Mac OS and NetTen in this situation. When replacing OpenTransport, all OpenTransport operations in Mac OS are disabled and only one IP address is needed. This configuration is typical for machines that are always only running NetTen since no networking applications (including web browsers) will be able to use the network in this configuration.



NetTen Networking Options


Tenon Libraries


OpenTransport (default)




Replace OpenTransport




Dual Stack




While Tenon's TCP stack has some advantages over OpenTransport (e.g. multilink support), there is no strong advantage in switching to Tenon's stack when using NetTen unless you need to run another application on your computer that would have a port conflict with NetTen. For example, you could run two mail servers, both listening on port 25, with NetTen using Tenon networking and one using OpenTransport networking. OpenTransport and Tenon networking would utilize different IP addresses which makes this possible.


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