Apache provides the capability to support multiple servers on a single machine, each differentiated by a unique host name. This feature is called virtual hosting. For example, it is often desirable for companies sharing a Web server to have their own domains, with Web servers accessible as " www.company1.com " and " www.company2.com ", without requiring the user to know any extra path information.
The See WebTen Administration Server includes a table of virtual host names. This table initially will include a single virtual host, which is the fully qualified domain name of the system on which Web Ten is running. In "See Virtual Hosts Table", that name is " barney.tenon.com ". It also lists the virtual hosts " betty.tenon.com ", " fred.tenon.com ", and " holly.tenon.com ".
Additional virtual host names can be entered directly into the Virtual Hosts Table . Simply type the new virtual host name into the empty text edit field. The Domain Name Server is consulted to determine if the host name is an IP-based virtual host or a header-based virtual host. In either case, simply enter the host name, and the proper virtual host type will be created. Click on the Add Virtual Host button (or hit the <Return> key) to submit your new virtual host entry.
If you are using a host name, the new host name must be properly configured with your Domain Name Server before Web Ten will accept it. If necessary, an IP address can be used in place of a host name. Actual host names can be entered into the table after they have been configured in DNS. Using a host name is preferable to using an IP address, as users will remember a name more readily than a number.
Each virtual host has its own Virtual Host Configuration . These settings are accessible via the Virtual Host Config button. See section See Virtual Host Configuration for more information.
To delete virtual hosts from the See Virtual Hosts Table , click on the Virtual Host Config button beside the virtual host you wish to delete. Select the Delete Virtual Host check box at the bottom of the Virtual Host Configuration table. Click on the Save Virtual Host Config button to submit the changes. The browser will return to the Web Ten Administration Server home page and the Virtual Hosts Table should no longer contain the deleted host name.
The default virtual host (the one with the same virtual host name as the fully qualified domain name of the machine running the Web server) does not have the Delete Virtual Host check box because it cannot be deleted.
When a virtual host is added to the Web Ten configuration, the Web Ten Administration Server sets up an initial See Virtual Host Configuration for the new virtual host. These settings apply to incoming requests that explicitly use this virtual host's name. Each virtual host supported by the Web server corresponds to a unique folder that contains a unique set of Web pages. Client requests using the virtual host name are mapped to the corresponding folder. This prevents the client from unintentionally accessing other virtual hosts' Web pages. The client is unaware that its request is actually supported by a virtual host entry on a Web server with several virtual hosts. To access the Virtual Host Configuration table, click on the Virtual Host Config button beside the name of the virtual host you wish to configure.
For each folder or file within a virtual host's content, Web Ten permits unique See Domain Name-Based Restrictions , See Realm-Based Requirements , See MIME Type Overrides , and See Action Handler Overrides settings. These settings are accessible via the Folder Contents button. See section See Folder Contents for more information on finding individual files or folders, and section See Access Controls for more information on setting access controls and other overrides for any file or folder served by Web Ten .
To change the virtual host settings, modify an existing setting or group of settings and click on the Save Virtual Host Config button. If you have not yet saved your changes, you can use the Reset button to restore the information in your browser's page to what it was when the page was first accessed. Note that the Reset button does not make any changes to the virtual host's settings; it simply undoes any typing you may have incorrectly entered into this page.
The following entries in the Virtual Host Configuration table are also present in the Server Defaults table: ServerAdmin , ServerName , DirectoryIndex , ErrorLog , TransferLog , LogFormat and HostnameLookups . For more information on these items, please refer to the corresponding sections in section See Server Defaults.
The VirtualHost entry displays the name of the virtual host to which the following settings apply. It is the same name that was entered in the Web Ten Administration Server home page in the See Virtual Hosts Table .
Web Ten permits the configuration of secure connections on a per IP virtual host basis via the SSLSecurity directive. (For more information on SSL, refer to section See Secure Socket Layer (SSL).) The SSLSecurity setting defaults to " Off" . To enable SSL for this virtual host, set SSLSecurity to "On". Before SSLSecurity can be enabled, it is necessary to generate a Server Certificate (see section See Server Certificates) using the SSL Settings page (see section See SSL Settings).
DocumentRoot controls which folder will be used as the base, or top level folder, for this virtual host's content. When a new virtual host is added (see section See Adding Virtual Hosts), a folder with the same name as the virtual host is automatically created within the Web Ten folder. The DocumentRoot entry is set to the name of this folder. For example, if your Virtual Hosts Table includes two virtual hosts, " north.test.tenon.com " and " south.test.tenon.com ", your WebTen folder will contain two sub-folders with corresponding names. Place the content files to be published for this virtual host in this folder. If DocumentRoot is not set, the default DocumentRoot setting will be used. In this case, the DocumentRoot entry will be flagged with the Inherited indicator. See section See Inheritance for more information.
The ServerAdmin setting is an email address. This address is included in messages sent to a browser whenever a Web server error occurs. Users are encouraged to, and typically do, use this address to notify Webmasters of any problems they are experiencing with a Web server. The established convention is to use the email address " webmaster@your_domain.com ", but any valid email address is acceptable. The email address must be an existing email address on some other email server. Web Ten does not accept incoming email.
In the case of a virtual host, ServerAdmin is initially set to the email address " webmaster@virtualhost ", where " virtualhost " is replaced by the virtual host name. Alter this setting to reflect the email address of the Webmaster for this virtual host, or the Webmaster for this Web Ten system. Many Web sites follow the convention of using an email address " webmaster@virtualhost ". To preserve this convention for your Web Ten server, add this address to your email server, or make this address an alias to another existing email account on your email server.
If ServerAdmin is not set for a particular virtual host, the See ServerAdmin setting is inherited from the Server Defaults . In this case, the ServerAdmin entry in the Virtual Host Configuration table will be flagged with the Inherited indicator.
The ServerName setting corresponds to the host name of this server. It is only used in redirection URLs. If the ServerName setting is not set, a reverse DNS lookup of the server's IP address is used. Note that this reverse DNS lookup may not return the desired host name if, for example, the host's primary name is " fred.tenon.com " and the desired ServerName is " www.tenon.com ".
The ServerPath is set initially to a path beginning with a slash ("/") followed by the virtual host name (e.g., /north.test.tenon.com ). If this virtual host's home page was previously accessible via a non-virtual host URL, the old, or legacy URL, is entered here. Otherwise, this path should be blank
When the Web server receives a request from a browser incapable of supporting host header-based virtual hosts, or from a browser requesting the now outdated legacy URL, this Web server will translate those requests to the proper See DocumentRoot via the ServerPath .
The DirectoryIndex setting controls which file is returned when serving a request for a URL that points to a directory (i.e., ending with a "/"). When such a request is made, the DirectoryIndex is substituted for the URL, pointing the client request to a default file or CGI. If the DirectoryIndex is null, the contents of the directory will be listed on the returned page.
The ErrorLog entry in both the Server Defaults table and the Virtual Host Configuration table is the name of the file Web Ten uses to log information about Web server errors. If an ErrorLog file is not specifically set for a virtual host, the ErrorLog file setting in the Server Defaults table will be used.
The TransferLog setting is the name of the file Web Ten uses to log information about incoming requests. If TransferLog is not set for a particular virtual host, it will be inherited from the Server Defaults , and flagged accordingly. Apache hits will only be logged in this file if the file is different from the TransferLog set in the Server Defaults.
The LogFormat setting is a string that controls the format of the log file. The log file can include literal characters copied from the log format setting and detailed information specific to the actual request that is being logged. Details are encoded using a percent sign ("%") followed by a letter. For example:
Each "%" followed by a letter is a directive to the Web server for a specific piece of information about the request being logged. For example, "%h" logs the name of the remote host placing the request. The order and set of literal characters and details included in the transfer log explicitly follow the order and set of literals and "%" letters in the LogFormat setting.
ApacheSSL provides a " c " symbol for custom logging, thus Web Ten can be configured with custom SSL log entries using the " c " symbol. For example, a LogFormat string to include the SSL version used in an access and the encryption algorithm or cipher used in an access should use:
If the TransferLog is not customized for a particular virtual host, the LogFormat setting will be inherited from the Server Defaults . This results from the TransferLog itself being inherited and utilizing the Server Defaults' LogFormat .
If the TransferLog for the virtual host is inherited from Server Defaults , LogFormat will not appear as an option in the Virtual Host Configuration table. The LogFormat option can be edited in the Server Defaults table, or a new TransferLog for a specific virtual host can be created. Click on the Save Virtual Host Config button. The LogFormat option should appear in the Virtual Host Configuration table.
The cache will keep the log if the accelerator cache is "On". (This is the default.) As such, the LogFormat option entered into the Administration Server is not passed to the cache, and the LogFormat has no effect.
The HostnameLookups setting controls whether reverse DNS lookups are performed for each incoming request using the originator's IP address. Enabling HostnameLookups will generally increase the time necessary to satisfy each request, and thus increase the load on your server. However, without HostnameLookups , See Access Controls can be based only on IP addresses, not on host names or domain names. If HostnameLookups is disabled, IP addresses will be used in the See ErrorLog and See TransferLog , but these addresses can subsequently be resolved into host names, if necessary.
If the HostnameLookups option is not specifically set, it will be inherited from the See Server Defaults and flagged accordingly.
The WSAPIRequests setting controls whether the Web server will service requests to/from WebSTAR API-style ACGIs and plug-ins. This setting is "On" by default and enables the use of such ACGIs and plug-ins. The Virtual Host Configuration table also contains the WSAPIRequests entry which, if not specifically set, will be inherited and flagged accordingly.
The ACGIBinOnly setting controls whether Apple CGIs are permitted to be executed from within any folder or only from within the cgi-bin folder. The default setting is "Off", which enables Apple CGIs to be executed from within any folder. The Virtual Host Configuration table also contains the ACGIBinOnly entry which, if not specifically set, will be inherited and flagged accordingly.
The RequestFiltering setting controls whether a virtual host will allow "filter" plug-ins to service a request. Filter plug-ins receive the incoming HTTP request before processing has begun. The filter plug-in may modify the request URL before passing it back to Web Ten for processing. The default setting is "On", which enables URL filtering within a plug-in. (For more information, see section See Plug-In Administration.) The Virtual Host Configuration table also contains the RequestFiltering entry which, if not specifically set, will be inherited and flagged accordingly.
The PIAccessControl flag controls whether security plug-ins may participate in determining whether access should be granted or denied by the server on a per request basis. The default setting is "On", enabling security plug-ins. Security plug-ins may be selectively disabled by each virtual host.
The SSLCertificateFile is the name of the server certificate for an IP-based virtual server. Host header-based virtual hosts sharing a common IP address must share the same server certificate; however, multiple IP based hosts may also share a single "wildcard" certificate. This setting allows certificate "wildcarding" among several IP hosts.Server certificates are maintained in the tenon/ssl/certs folder.
For more information, see sectionSee Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
The SSLCertificateKey file is the private key associated with the server certificate. Keys generated by Web Ten during certificate signing request generation are normally stored in a secure area of the Web Ten internal file system; however, this field may be used for private keys of "wildcard" certificates or when a certificate and key are imported from from another system.
For more information, see sectionSee Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
Virtual Host Alias, Error File, and Redirect Settings are exactly the same as their counterparts in the Server Defaults section of the admin server except that the ones applied here only apply to the individual Virtual Host to which they are applied. See section See Error File Settings for more information on how to set the Error Files, section See Alias Settings for information on how to set Aliases, and See Redirect Settings for directions on setting Redirects.
The Folder Contents table contains an entry for each file and sub-folder of a given folder. The given folder may be the See DocumentRoot for a virtual host, or it may be a sub-folder of the DocumentRoot . To display the Folder Contents table for the DocumentRoot of a virtual host, click on the Folder Contents button for that virtual host in the See Virtual Hosts Table . To display the Folder Contents table for a specific sub-folder, simply click on that sub-folder's link in the Folder Contents table.
When the Folder Contents table is displaying the contents of a folder other than the DocumentRoot folder, it displays a Parent Folder link as the first entry in the Folders column of the table. Clicking on the Parent Folder link will display a Folder Contents table for the folder in which the current folder resides.
Thus, the Folder Contents table provides a means for finding any file or sub-folder within a virtual host's hierarchy. To set any See Domain Name-Based Restrictions , See Realm-Based Requirements , See MIME Type Overrides , or See Action Handler Overrides for a specific folder, find that folder by using the Folder Contents table, then click on the See Access Controls button for that folder. To access settings for a specific file, find that file by using the Folder Contents table, and then click on that file's name.
This column displays an alphabetical list of all files contained within the specified folder. To access any settings specific to a particular file, click on that file's name to display the See Access Controls for that file.
This column displays an alphabetical list of all sub-folders contained within the specified folder. To make any settings specific to a particular sub-folder, click on that folder's name to display a Folder Contents table for that folder, and then click on the See Access Controls button for that folder.
The Access Controls settings can be set for any file or folder within a virtual host's hierarchy. The name of the file or folder to which these settings apply appears at the top of the table. This is a valid URL to this specific file or folder, complete with the proper virtual host name. Clicking on this URL will request this file or folder from the Web server in the exact same manner as any client browser. Thus, this link provides not only an explicit reference to the file or folder to which these controls apply, but also provides an easy way to test these settings and how the file or folder will be presented to normal incoming requests.
Domain Name-Based Restrictions specify which client IP addresses are permitted access to this URL, and which are denied. The Web server processes the Allow and Deny lists in the specified order to determine if a client request will be permitted.
The Allow and Deny lists can contain fully qualified domain names or IP addresses. They can also contain partially qualified domain names or IP addresses. If a fully qualified domain name or IP address is used, that specific host is allowed or denied access, as appropriate. If a partially qualified domain name is used, any host whose fully qualified domain name ends with the partially qualified name is allowed or denied, as appropriate. If a partially qualified IP address is used (i.e., the first 1 to 3 bytes of an IP address with a trailing dot (" . ")), any host whose fully qualified IP addresses begin with the partially qualified IP address is allowed or denied, as appropriate.
If partially qualified domain names or IP addresses are used, any comparison will match whole components of domain names and IP addresses. For example, denying " non.com " denies " host1.non.com ", but not " anyone.tenon.com ". Also, denying " 192.30.20. " denies " 18.104.22.168 ", but not " 22.214.171.124 ".
HostnameLookups must be enabled for this virtual host, in order for domain names to be properly interpreted in the Allow and Deny lists. See section See HostnameLookups for more information.
A range of IP addresses may also be specified for a specific subnet by appending a slash ("/") and the number of bits in the subnet mask. For example, specifying " 126.96.36.199/25 " would mean all IP addresses from " 188.8.131.52 " to " 184.108.40.206 ", inclusive.
Remember, if Access Controls for sub-folders are not explicitly set, the sub-folder will inherit the Access Controls from its parent folder. If the Evaluation Order for a given file or folder is set to No Restrictions , but a parent folder does have explicit restrictions, the parent's restrictions also apply to this file or folder. In this case, the Access Controls table will show the inherited Access Controls as specified by the parent folder, and the Inherited indicator and the Evaluation Order setting will be displayed.
Any highlighted user in the Users list is permitted access. To select a set of users, see section See Users in Group. Selected users may be checked by itself, or in conjunction with Users in Group , in which case any user who is a member of any highlighted group in the Groups list, or any highlighted user in the Users list, is permitted access.
If none of the Any Valid User , Selected Users or Users in Group settings are checked, no Realm-Based Access Controls explicitly apply to this file or folder. However, if a parent folder does have explicit Realm-Based restrictions, the parent's restrictions also apply to this file or folder. In this case, the Realm-Based Requirements table will show the inheritance as specified by the parent folder, and the Inherited flag will be displayed, along with the required setting.
If any of the Any Valid User , Selected Users , or Users in Group settings are checked, a Re alm Name must be entered. This name can be any word or compound word without spaces, such as " WebTenAdmin ". The Realm Name is passed to the browser and displayed to the client as a means of identifying which collection of users is permitted to access this file or folder. Many browsers cache this Realm Name and the entered user name and password to relieve the user from re-entering this information when another URL with the same Realm Name is requested.
MIME Type Overrides allow an explicit file, or folder of files, to be served without regard for the file name extensions. For example, if a folder contained only GIF files, but some (or all) of these files did not end with the " .gif " extension, the MIME Type Overrides could be set to " image/gif " to force all of these files to be treated as GIF files, without requiring any renaming of the files.
If the MIME Type Overrides setting is not given for a specific file or folder, but a parent folder does have an explicit setting, the parent's setting also applies to this file or folder. In this case, the table will show the inheritance (see section See Inheritance) as specified by the parent folder, and the Inherited indicator will be displayed along with the MIME Type Overrides setting. See section See MIME Extensions for more information.
Action Handler Overrides allow a specific file, or folder of files, to be passed to the overriding action handlers, without regard for the file name extensions or associated MIME types. See section See Action Handlers for more information. For example, if a folder contained only image map files, and some (or all) of these files did not end with the " .map " extension, the Action Handler Overrides could be set to " imap-file " to force all of these files to be passed to the image map handler, without requiring any renaming of the files.
If the Action Handler Overrides setting is not given for a specific file or folder, but a parent folder does have an explicit setting, the parent's setting also applies to this file or folder. In this case, the table will show the inherited overrides as specified by the parent folder, and the Inherited indicator and the Action Handler Overrides setting will be displayed.